GIT part-2 Concepts and architecture


Git uses three-tier tree architecture for its repository’s files and commits, which is very handy. The illustration (a) below shows a typical two-tier tree set up which other version control systems use. The working depository is a root folder, which you have set up on your computer too manage your files this is done through setting up a root folder navigating to it through the command line and then initialising it as a repository i.e. git – init

When we wish to receive files i.e. clone or fork a repository we check it out from the repository into our working repository or copy.
When we wish to make changes or send files to the repository we call it a commit.
The reason we have two different repositories is that the files don’t have to be the same when you make changes to your working copy, you save them and they are saved on your hard drive, both different copies are saved, and until you choose to…. You can commit those changes to the repository. If the repository is a shared one there can be many different people working on it.


Three Tree architecture

As I mentioned earlier Git uses a three-tier tree, which adds another area called a staging area. See illustration b) This allows us to have 10 different files in our working directory (for example) and allows us to prepare five which we wish to add to our staging index in preparation for a commit. When we are happy we commit those five files with a message to our repository where git will track it.
Conversely we can pull or checkout our files to our working directory or staging index. more often than not you will pull them straight to your working directory.

What is GIT?

Octocat GIT

Understanding version control

Git is software for keeping track of  changes in files and directories , particularly text changes. Git gives you the ability to store (for example)
three different versions and allows you to compare different versions, move between different versions, and control them. This is referred to as a Version control system or VCS. Git was not the first version control system by any means, but all have been designed with the purpose of tracking computer code. They wanted to be able to track changes over time fix bugs and update source code. Ninety Five percent of VCS is used to track source code  hence the name, source code management or SCM, these terms are almost interchangeable. You may well of as a designer, used non source code version control to name files like Budget_4.xls, or logo_v2.png so that you can keep track of changes over time. You have done this by changing the text at the end of the file. Think of the History palette in Photoshop this palette shows each change you have made to your file and allows you to view your image at different stages. You can even roll back your image to an earlier time, this is a primitive example of  version control.

Plug-Ins in WordPress

Plug-Ins – Plug what?

In the WordPress application framework, plug ins are a very cool addition.  Plug-ins can help you deploy
a full-blown web application with little to no knowledge of actual code.  The definition of a plug-in provided in the WordPress codex is,

“a program, or a set of one or more functions, written in the PHP scripting language, that adds a specific set of features or services to the WordPress weblog, which can be seamlessly integrated with the weblog using access points and methods provided by the WordPress Plug-in Application Program Interface (API).”

Plug ins allow you to turn your site into anything you can think of, from a basic blog to an e-commerce site to a social
There are a couple of plug-ins that come standard with any new WordPress install:  Hello Dolly and Akismet.  If you didn’t know, the Hello Dolly plugin adds a random lyric from
the song “Hello Dolly” by Louis Armstrong to the top of your dashboard on each page load. It’s not useful, but is a good way to see how to structure your own plug ins.

The Akismet plug-in integrates with to automatically filter out spam comments from your blog. While Hello Dolly is useless outside of its educational value, Akismet is downright necessary on any site with commenting turned on.
You always have the ability to deactivate these plug-ins or delete them altogether if you do not see any use for them on your site.
There are over 26,000 plug-ins available that can be accessed through the official Word‐Press plug-in repository. Not all plug-ins can be found in the repository, so you can always do a search on the Internet for whatever functionality you are looking for. Many plug-in
creators have their work available for download through their personal or business sites and many of these are available for a fee. There are also premium plug-ins, which are supported and that you have to pay to use.

URL Types

When attaching an external JavaScript file to a web page, you need to specify a URL for the src attribute of the <script> tag.  A URL or Uniform Resource Locator is a path to a file—like another web page, a graphic, or a JavaScript file—located on the Web. There are three types of paths:

  • absolute path
  • rootrelative path
  • document-relative path

All three indicate where a web browser can find a particular file.  An absolute path is like a postal address–it contains all the information needed for a web browser located anywhere in the world to find the file.  An absolute path includes http://, the hostname, and the folder and name of the file.  For example:  A root-relative path indicates where a file is located relative to a site’s top-level folder–the site’s root folder.  A root-relative path doesn’t include http:// or the domain name. It begins with a / (slash) indicating the site’s root folder–the folder the home page is in. For example, /scripts/site.js indicates that the file site.js is located inside a folder named scripts, which is itself located in the site’s top-level folder. An easy way to create a root-relative path is to take an absolute path and strip off the http:// and the host name. For example, written as a root-relative URL is just /index.html.

A document-relative path specifies the path from the web page to the JavaScript file. If you have multiple levels of folders on your website, you’ll need to use different paths to point to the same JavaScript file. For example, suppose you have a JavaScript file named site.js located in a folder named scripts in your website’s main directory. The document-relative path to that file will look one way for the home page–scripts/site.js–but for a page located inside a folder named about, the path to the same file would
be different; ../scripts/site.js–the ../ means climb up out of the about folder, while the /scripts/site.js means go to the scripts folder and get the file site.js.

Here are some tips on which URL type to use:

  • If you’re pointing to a file that’s not on the same server as the web page, you must use an absolute path. It’s the only type that can point to another website.
  • Root-relative paths are good for JavaScript files stored on your own site. Because they always start at the root folder, the URL for a JavaScript file will be the same for every page on your website, even when web pages are located in folders and sub folders on your site. However, root-relative paths don’t work unless you’re viewing your web pages through a web server—either your web server out on the Internet, or a web server you’ve set up on your own computer for testing purposes. In other words, if
    you’re just opening a web page off your computer using the browser’s File→ Open command,  the web browser
    won’t be able to locate, load, or run JavaScript files that are attached using a root-relative path.
  • Document-relative paths are the best when you’re designing on your own computer without the aid of a web server. You can create an external JavaScript file, attach it to a web page, and then check the JavaScript in a web browser simply by opening the web page off your hard drive. Document-relative paths work fine when moved to your actual, living, breathing website on the Internet, but you’ll have to rewrite the URLs to the JavaScript file if you move the web page to another location on the server.

What is ? REST API



APIs allow different software to talk to one another. The REST API, for example is an alternative to the outdated XML-RPC, it allows for example, WordPress to easily interact with other websites and services on the Internet using JavaScript Object Notation, or JSON.

Nowadays, the acronym REST has become a buzzword, and as such, it’s being thrown into the digital wind very carelessly by a lot of tech people without fully understanding what it really means. Just because you can interact with a system using HTTP, and send JSON back and forth, doesn’t mean it’s a RESTful system. REST is a lot more than that.

REST has proven to be a huge jump forward regarding distributed systems interconnection, which is what developers were  looking for solutions to ” how to easily interconnect a nonhomogeneous set of systems.”
Developers before REST used to interconnect systems, mainly going over SOAP and XML-RPC (the two main players before REST).

Mojo wordpress framework

This shows the directory structure to my wordpress theme

Hi all, Today I completed building my WordPress framework mojo. This was done using my own computer as a server or as they say, setting up a local hosting environment. I highly recommend MAMP as your tool for this, there is a free version which is quite adequate and a paid version with more bells and whistles. originally targeted at Macs they now cater for windows as well.

unstyled view of the posts page with comments
unstyled view of the posts page with comments

As you can see it’s looking pretty bare…. however the core functionality is there, (not too say that I won’t be adding more) and I’m working on building a Photoshop mock-up, new logo and style guide to work from for the styling of the Mojo Theme. The layout as you can see is a main column and right hand sidebar however I intend to add more options hence the layouts folder in the framework. The framework is liquid however I may integrate other alternatives rather than just media queries (ie Bootstrap) so stay tuned.

screen shot of sample page in mojo theme
– Sample Page I Test – http___localhost_8888_wordpress__page_id=2

What is ?

What is XML-RPC protocol ?

XML-RPC is a simple, portable way to make remote procedure calls over HTTP. It can be used with Perl, Java, Python, C, C++, PHP and many other programming languages. Implementations are available for Unix, Windows and the Macintosh.
In order to update your WordPress website from your mobile phone or another remote location, you need to enable XML-RPC (XML Remote Procedure Call). See for excellent article.